|Abortion has etymologically, in a wide sense, two nuclear denotations: 1) disruption or arrest of the progress of a process, in this case non-arrived-to-birth or born (or delivery) before (normal) birth; 2) the obliteration of a process, in this case, the death of the fetus or embryo or the act of killing it. Any disruption of growth (with or without delivery, with or without fetal death) since beginning to birth is included in this wide meaning; also, it includes the killing of the embryo or the fetus.
Scholarly peer review is the process of subjecting an author's scholarly work, research, or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field, before a paper describing this work is published in a journal. The work may be accepted, considered acceptable with revisions, or rejected. Peer review requires a community of experts in a given (narrowly defined) field, who are qualified and able to perform reasonably impartial review.