Proteomics is the large-scale study of proteins, particularly their structures and functions Proteins are vital parts of living organisms, as they are the main components of the physiological metabolic pathways of cells. The term proteomics was first coined in 1997 to make an analogy with genomics, the study of the genome. The proteome is the entire set of proteins produced or modified by an organism or system. This varies with time and distinct requirements, or stresses, that a cell or organism undergoes.
Proteomics have different characteristics when compared to genomics
â¢ The level of transcription of a gene gives only a rough estimate of its level of translation into a protein An mRNA produced in abundance may be degraded rapidly or translated inefficiently, resulting in a small amount of protein.
â¢ As mentioned above many proteins experience post-translational modifications that profoundly affect their activities; for example some proteins are not active until they become phosphorylated. Methods such as phosphoproteomics and glycoproteomics are used to study post-translational modifications.
â¢ Many transcripts give rise to more than one protein, through alternative splicing or alternative post-translational modifications.
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Last date updated on September, 2020