The adult human ovary is composed of various cell types. Preovulatory follicles contain two distinct types of granulosa cells that arise during folliculogenesis as the cell populations segregate upon formation of the fluid-filled follicular antrum. The granulosa cells line in the follicle wall, reside very close to the basement membrane and are essential for estrogen production and follicular rupture. The cumulus cells are closely connected to the oocyte through a gap junction network and are associated with the oocyte development. Paracrine interactions between ovarian somatic cells and germ cells are critical for normal follicular development and oocytes also promote granulosa cell proliferation and differentiation. There are strong evidences that a subpopulation of granulosa ovarian cells have pluripotent and self-renewal capabilities. The presence of stem cell markers in the ovarian luteinized granulosa cells of women undergoing assisted reproduction technologies is an important subject for studies in terms of their possible regenerative role and theirs possible prognostic significance for the infertile citizens. Expression of the stem cell marker Oct-4 in human ovarian luteinized granulosa cells from women undergoing IVF or ICSI indicates the presence of stem cells in these cells. The absence of DAZL gene expression in these cells indicates that the stem cells found in
granulosa cells cannot be differentiated in germ cells. Also, a clinical significance for the number of oocytes retrieved and the expression levels of Oct-4 in human luteinized ovarian granulosa cells is possible to exist. More specifically, the expression of Oct-4 mRNA in granulosa cells appears to play an important role in the regulation of follicular growth during assisted reproduction technologies. Clinical Significance of Expression of Stem Cell Markers in Human
Ovarian Luteinized Granulosa Cells during Assisted Reproduction Technologies, Michail Varras.
Last date updated on June, 2014