Reproductive system in an organism is for the purpose of sexual reproduction. It is a system of sex organs within its body which is also called as genital system. Not only the sex organs but also the various non-living substances within the body such as hormones, pheromones, body fluids, etc form an important accessory to the reproductive system that works together for the purpose of sexual reproduction. The sexes of differentiated species often have significant differences in their respective genital systems. These differences allow for combination of genetic material between the two individuals, which in turn favors possibilities of greater genetic fitness of the offspring. Humans have a high level of sexual differentiation among male and female reproductive systems. In addition to the differences in their sex organs numerous differences typically occur in their secondary sexual characters. The human reproductive system involves internal fertilization. The production of gametes for the purpose of fertilization takes place within the gonads through the process known as gametogenesis. Specifically, it is termed as spermatogenesis in males while oogenesis in females. Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel roads towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is self-archiving (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.
Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.
Last date updated on June, 2014