There are two major types of periodontal diseases: gingivitis and periodontitis. While gingivitis is inflammation afflicting the gingival part of the periodontium, periodontitis is a bacterial disease manifested with presence of anti-inflammatory response; a reaction to the presence of periodontal pathogens in the periodontium. The anti-inflammatory response of periodontal tissues can have an impact on other tissues and organs due to penetration of the microorganisms from the periodontium into the bloodstream; an inflammatory reaction in individuals with weakened immunity is stimulated. Temporary bacteraemia and penetration of various germs into the bloodstream can occur e.g. during medical examination with a periodontal probe, or during chewing, or simple dental hygiene procedures, such as tooth brushing, flossing, etc. Periodontitis is a serious inflammatory disease connected with osteolysis, destruction of periodontal ligaments and formation of periodontal pockets filled with anaerobic bacteria. For advanced stages and forms, penetration of the most virulent strains and bacteria into the periodontal structures is typical. Prolongation of the chronic process increases the total pro-inflammatory status of the organism and enables dissemination of bacteria, virulent components and other inflammatory mediators by blood. The surrounding tissues are often invaded with periodontal pathogens and bacteraemia is caused with hematogenous spreading of these pathogens into distal tissues and organisms. Nowadays periodontitis is seen as a serious systemic disease. It afflicts pregnant women when the periodontal pathogens with their virulent toxins overcome fetoplacental barriers, attack the fetal membranes and cause a preterm labor. The aim of this paper is to indicate possible etiopathogenetic associations between destructive periodontitis in pregnant women and preterm low birth-weight deliveries. Strong pro-inflammatory potential of chronic periodontitis may attack the whole organism of the future mothers. The destructive inflammatory character of various forms of periodontitis with its bacterial, cytokinal and proteolytic expressions can raise the pro-inflammatory and proteolytic status in the fetoplacental unit and cause premature rupture of chorioplacental membranes. In our study, there are presented possible associations of both states manifested through bacterial, mediatory, genetic, proteolytic and oxidative mechanisms. The majority of other papers report associations of individual ethiopathogenetic mechanisms, by means of which chronic destructive inflammation of periodontium negatively afflicts the feto-placental structures. In spite of wide research in this field, causal associations have not yet been unanimously proven. Periodontitis and Preterm Low Birth Weight: Is there any Association? Trapezanlidis Michaela, Straka Michal and KotrÃ¡Å Milan.
Last date updated on January, 2021