|Rotator cuff refers to the group of muscles and tendons that connect the upper arm to the scapula or shoulder blade. The tendons of the rotator cuff help in providing stability to the shoulder and the muscles help in rotation of shoulder. There are four types of muscles present in the rotator cuff-teres minor, supraspinatus, subscapularis and infraspinatus. Teres minor muscle helps in outward movement of arm, supraspinatus muscles helps in moving the arm away from body, subscapularis helps in inward movement of arm and infraspinatus muscle help in lifting of arm when the arm is moved outward. If there is tearing of any one of the four muscles then rotator cuff tear. Any damage to the rotator cuff causes rotator cuff disease.
The damage can occur to the rotator cuff due to some inflammation caused by arthritis or tendinitis or because of ageing. The symptoms of rotator cuff disease include shoulder pain which at acute level can cause frozen shoulder. The person having rotator cuff disease finds it difficult to lift the arm. The disease can be diagnosed either by X-ray or radiology testing.
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel âroadsâ towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is âself-archivingâ (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.
Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.