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Review Article Open Access
Concrete is an absolutely essential component of construction materials used in infrastructure and most buildings. Despite its versatility in construction, it is known to have several limitations. It is weak in tension, has limited ductility and little resistance to cracking. Based on the continuous research carried out around the globe, various modifications have been made from time to time to overcome the deficiencies of cement concrete. However, concrete is sometimes exposed to substances that can attack it and cause deterioration. The corrosion of the concrete is caused by the interaction between biological and chemical processes. When the corrosion is sufficiently occurred, it can lead to structural failures with potentially serious long term operational consequences. Due to microbial activities of the bacteria, microbiologically induced calcite precipitation (MICP), a highly impermeable calcite layer is formed which contributes to increase the performance of concrete structure and also has excellent resistance to corrosion. Recent research has shown that specific species of bacteria can be useful to enhance the durability and strength of concrete structures. This microbial concrete presents a potentially enormous lengthening in service-life of infrastructure, substantially reduces the maintenance costs and also considerably increases the safety of structures. This paper outlines the basic mechanism involved in microbial concrete on which studies were carried out to investigate the causes involved in enhancing the strength and durability of concrete.