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Research Article Open Access
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder in which prevalence has been increasing steadily all over the world. As a result of this trend, it is becoming an epidemic in some countries of the world. The number of people affected are expected to become double in the next decade due to increase in ageing population, there by adding extra burden to already existing burden for healthcare providers, especially in poor developed countries. This review is based on a search of medicine, the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and citation lists of relevant publications. Subject heading and key words used include type 2 diabetes mellitus, prevalence, current diagnosis and currents treatment. Only articles in English were included. Screening and diagnosis is still based on World Health Organisation (WHO) and American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria which include both clinical and laboratory parameters. No cure has yet been found for the disease; however, treatment modalities include lifestyle modifications, treatment of obesity, oral hypoglycaemic agents, and insulin sensitizers like metformin, a biguanide that reduces insulin resistance, is the still recommended first line medication especially for obese patients. Other effective medications include non-sulfonylurea secretagogues, thiazolidinediones, alpha glucoside inhibitors, and insulin. Recent research in the pathophysiology of type 2 DM has led to the introduction of new medications like glucagon-like peptide 1 analogues: dipeptidyle peptidase-IV inhibitors, inhibitors of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 and 11 beta-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase 1, insulin releasing glucokinase activators and pancreatic-G-protein-coupled fatty-acidreceptor agonists, glucagon-receptor antagonists, metabolic inhibitors of hepatic glucose output and quick – release bromocriptine. Inhaled insulin was licensed for use in 2006 but has been withdrawn from market because of low patronage.
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Author(s): Charan Kumar C. and Murthy S.D.S.
Diabetes mellitus-Diagnosis-Epidemology-Management, Plant and environmental sciences