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Research Article Open Access
The value of Closed Loop Medication Management (CLMM) systems resides in their ability to help healthcare providers prevent medication errors (ME) and adverse drug events (ADEs) that may occur during the process of delivering prescription medicines [1-5]. This paper argues that the concept of ‘closed loop’ is being incorrectly conceptualised in a linear sense process from the pharmacist to the patient. As a result not only is the process (loop) not being ‘closed’, such thinking is preventing traditional CLMM systems being designed to provide the user functionality required to reduce waste and costs, improve performance, and thence improve patient outcomes through reduction of ME and ADEs. A case will be built for how a ‘closed loop’ medication management process should be conceptualised and results from a Kano Model Analysis presented to isolate the functions and attributes that raise performance and excite users managing medications within a closed loop process. This qualitative study will occur against the backdrop of an ongoing quantitative research based on a study of the innovative Closed Loop Electronic Medication Management (CLEMM) system being trialed in test sites located in Australia and Hong Kong. This will permit current practice and future best practice to be contrasted and the initial impact on improved patient outcomes to be advanced. Through soft systems analysis and user satisfaction studies initial evidence will confirm significant benefit can accrue in aged care or for community pharmacists when managing patient risk, process control, and overall medications systems throughout the loop from the point of supply and packaging through to ensuring that the right patient receives the right dose of the right drug at the right time, and then, beyond to post-delivery reporting and monitoring.
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Author(s): Marcus Bowles, Jianjun Lu