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Editorial Open Access
As on today, almost whole world is dependent on fossil fuels as a source of energy. With increase in world’s population there are growing concerns about diminishing fossil fuel resources, global warming and environmental pollution; hence there is a need for search of renewable resources to bridge the gap between the supply and demand of energy and chemicals. In this respect for production of biofuels, biomass is the only widespread, abundant, inexpensive and sustainable resource which can be an ideal substitute for fossil resources. The first generation biofuels mainly bioethanol or biodiesel were produced from crops like corn, sugarcane, soybeans, wheat, vegetable oil etc., which can be easily extracted using conventional technology. These crops mainly contains starch, a polymer of D-glucose with α-1,4-glycosidic bonds, soluble in water. Sufficient attention has been paid to use starch to produce fuels and chemicals. But there has always been a competition whether these crops should be used to satisfy food needs or used for biofuel production. Hence, the thought of second generation biofuels came up. Second generation biofuels are also known as advanced biofuels and can supply a larger proportion of global fuel supply sustainably, affordably, and with greater environmental benefits. The goal of second generation biofuel processes is to extend the amount of biofuel that can be produced sustainably by using biomass consisting of lignocellulosic biomass. What separates them from first generation biofuels is the fact that feedstock used in producing second generation biofuels are generally not food crops.
Cellulose Hydrolysis, hemicellulose, Lignocellulosic biomass, Organic chemistry