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Review Article Open Access
The plant has been used as a medicine in ancient. Now day’s pharmaceutical companies start processing of medicinal and aromatic plants in their formulation by using extraction of active components. Now days there are several processes like distillation, effleurage, maceration, expression, solvent extraction and fluid extraction are available for extraction of plant component. This review also summarizes the characters of phytoconstituents, procedures for extraction of herbal drugs and treatment of drug residue after extraction. Standardisation of crude drug plays a very important role in identifying the purity and quality of crude drugs. The present investigation reveals standardization which includes Moisture content, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash, water soluble extractive value, alcohol soluble extractive value, Phytochemical screening, and further isolation and identification of phytoconstituents. The general techniques of medicinal plant extraction include maceration, infusion, percolation, digestion, decoction, hot continuous extraction (Soxhlet), aqueous-alcoholic extraction by fermentation, counter-current extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound extraction (sonication), supercritical fluid extraction, and phytonic extraction (with hydro fluorocarbon solvents). For aromatic plants, hydro distillation techniques (water distillation, steam distillation, water and steam distillation), hydrolytic maceration followed by distillation, expression and effleurage (cold fat extraction) may be employed. Some of the latest extraction methods for aromatic plants include headspace trapping, solid phase micro-extraction, protoplast extraction, micro distillation, thermomicrodistillation and molecular distillation.
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Author(s): Tasneef Ahmad, Swatantra Bahadur Singh, Shivshankar Pandey