|Social change is the alteration in the social order of a society. Changes in social institutions, nature, social relations or social behaviours are included in social change. Social change refers to the social progress or sociocultural evolution. Social change may be driven by cultural, religious, economic, scientific or technological forces. Two types of sources are there for social change. One is random or unique factors such as climate, weather, or the presence of specific groups of people. Another one is systematic factors. Suppose, successful development has general requirements, like stable and flexible government, free and available resources, and a diverse social organization of society. So, on the whole, social change is usually a combination of systematic factors along with some random or unique factors.
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel roads towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is self-archiving (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.