Traditionally, the development of technology has taken the forefront in our efforts to sustain life underwater, in the air, in outer space, and in complex technological environments. The achievement of these technological and engineering feats provided an awareness of the physiological and biomedical stressors associated with operating in these environments. Myriad physiological conditions arising from spaceflight include Space Adaptation Sickness (SAS), bone demineralization, fluid shifts, and cardiovascular deconditioning. Accordingly, the development of biomedical and physiological countermeasures was undertaken in an effort to begin overcoming these stressors. These countermeasures allow us to sustain human presence in flight for increasing periods as well as to participate in increasingly complex and lengthy missions.
Last date updated on July, 2014