When the fibrous outer ring of an inter-vertebral disk is torn then that condition is known as disk herniation. During this condition, the central part of the disk comes out. This condition is usually seen in elderly people as in old age the annulus fibrosus starts degenerating. Sometimes when the disk which is already present has developed a bulge on the surface can lead to spinal disk herniation.
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is self-archiving (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals. Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.
Last date updated on July, 2014