Basic structure of spinal cord consists of 26 bones arranged in disk like structure. That structure is known as vertebrae. The main function of vertebrae is to protect the spinal cord. Vertebrae are mainly responsible for providing the human body with function of standing properly and bend sideways or backwards. There are numerous conditions that can cause damage to the structure of the spine and can damage vertebrae as well as surrounding tissue. Those conditions include infection, injuries, tumors, ankylosing spondylitis, and scoliosis. Apart from these it might include changes in the bone which comes with old age like spinal stenosis, herniated disk.
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is self-archiving (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals. Open Access rises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.
Last date updated on July, 2014