Spinal pain is basically related to back pain. When a person feels severe pain in the lower back area above the hip it is known as spinal pain or back pain. It can be categorized as neck pain, mid spinal pain and lower back pain. Spinal pain can be of two types, acute pain which begins suddenly and it is for very little time. After a few minutes it vanishes. Another type is chronic in which remains for a very long time, in fact it can persist for entire lifetime also. When one or more bones in spinal cord are fractured then that is known as spinal fracture. A spinal fracture is a fracture affecting the bones of the spinal cord.
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel roads towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is self-archiving (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals. Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.
Last date updated on November, 2020