Most stem cells are in your bone marrow. We also have some in your blood that circulate from your bone marrow. Bone marrow stem cells turn into red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets to help your body stay healthy. If our bone marrow is attacked by a disease such as multiple myeloma, it can no longer make normal blood cells. In a stem cell transplant, healthy stem cells are placed in your body through an IV to help your bone marrow start to work right. When the stem cells come from your own blood or bone marrow, it is called an autologous transplant. Autologous stem cell transplants are done using peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). With PBSCT, the stem cells are taken from blood. The growth factor G-CSF may be used to stimulate the growth of new stem cells so they spill over into the blood. G-CSF is a protein that is produced naturally in the body. The blood is removed from a vein and passed through a machine that separates the stem cells. The machine then returns the remaining blood through a needle in the person's arm or through a central venous catheter. This way of collecting stem cells is called apheresis. Review articles are the summary of current state of understanding on a particular research topic. They analyze or discuss research previously published by scientist and academicians rather than reporting novel research results. Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel ï¿½roadsï¿½ towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is self-archiving (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals. Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.
Last date updated on July, 2014