Spermatogenesis originates from spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Development of the spermatogonial transplantation technique in 1994 provided the first functional assay to characterize SSCs. In 2000, glial cell lineï¿½derived neurotrophic factor was identified as a SSC self-renewal factor. This discovery not only provided a clue to understand SSC self-renewing mechanisms but also made it possible to derive germline stem (GS) cell cultures in 2003. In vitro culture of GS cells demonstrated their potential pluripotency and their utility in germline modification. However, in vivo SSC analyses have challenged the traditional concept of SSC self-renewal and have revealed their relationship with the microenvironment. A journal is a periodical publication intended to further progress of science, usually by reporting new research. Most journals are highly specialized, although some of the oldest journals publish articles, reviews, editorials, short communications, letters, and scientific papers across a wide range of scientific fields. Journals contain articles that peer reviewed, in an attempt to ensure that articles meet the journal's standards of quality, and scientific validity.
Last date updated on February, 2021