Spermatogenesis originates from spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Development of the spermatogonial transplantation technique in 1994 provided the first functional assay to characterize SSCs. In 2000, glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor was identified as a SSC self-renewal factor. This discovery not only provided a clue to understand SSC self-renewing mechanisms but also made it possible to derive germline stem (GS) cell cultures in 2003. In vitro culture of GS cells demonstrated their potential pluripotency and their utility in germline modification. However, in vivo SSC analyses have challenged the traditional concept of SSC self-renewal and have revealed their relationship with the microenvironment. Scholarly peer review is the process of subjecting an author's scholarly work, research, or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field, before a paper describing this work is published in a journal. The work may be accepted, considered acceptable with revisions, or rejected. Peer review requires a community of experts in a given (narrowly defined) field, who are qualified and able to perform reasonably impartial review.
Last date updated on November, 2020