|The end-point treatment of point pollution sources is the best way to improve the quality of water and prevent coastal pollution, all over the world. Nevertheless, non-point pollution sources that influence the quality of surface water are serious concerns. Terrestrial pollution was deposited and accumulated over the estuary and coastal areas by adhering to the suspended particles in the rivers. Therefore, the pollution status and its history can be understood by analyzing and monitoring the sediments in the estuary as well as in the lagoon area. Sediments not only act as the carrier of pollution, but also as a potential secondary source of pollution in aquatic systems. High concentrations of PAHs in sediments are usually high in highly industrialized and urbanized locations . Moreover, highly anthropogenic activities are generally recognized to be the most important source of PAHs release into the environment. At coastal areas, anthropogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are introduced via urban runoff, industrial processes, vehicle exhausts, and spillage of fossil fuels. Meanwhile, heavy metals discharged into a river system by natural or anthropogenic sources during their transport are distributed between the aqueous phase and bed sediments. Therefore, sediments are regarded as the ultimate sinks for heavy metal cations. Heavy metal residing in contaminated habitats may accumulate in microorganisms, aquatic flora and fauna, which in turn may enter the human food chain and result in health problems. Liao SW (2013) From Understanding the Sources of Pollution to Control the Quality of Coastal Sediment from Non-Point Pollution Sources. J Pollut Eff Cont 1:e103. doi: 10.4172/jpe.1000e103.