The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, in vertebrate anatomy, is one of the largest endocrine glands and consists of two connected lobes. The thyroid gland is found in the neck, below the thyroid cartilage. The thyroid gland controls how quickly the body uses energy, makes proteins, and controls how sensitive the body is to other hormones.
Parathyroidectomy is the treatment of choice in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). This disease affects calcium metabolism at the level of bone tissue and renal tubules, resulting in hypercalcaemia, often asymptomatic, associated with hypophosphataemia and hypomagnesaemia. Sudden suppression of parathyroid hormone (PTH), caused by successful parathyroidectomy, in patients with preoperative high levels of PTH and hypercalcaemia from enhanced bone turnover, may induce severe postoperative hypocalcaemia that may lead to symptoms of tetany. This relatively uncommon condition is known as âhungry bone syndromeâ (HBS), because it is believed to be due mainly to enhanced bone formation. Several risk factors have been advocated for HBS, and the syndrome is reported to be more likely to rise in subjects with severe preoperative bone disease. Other modifiable risk factors are preoperative vitamin D deficiency and high PTH and calcium levels. Treatment of HBS is basically the administration of high amounts of calcium immediately after the onset of postoperative hypocalcaemia. Supplements of active metabolites of vitamin D, as well as magnesium in depleted subjects are complementary in supporting bone remineralization. Oral supplementation may be requested for months after parathyroidectomy. Prevention is poorly documented, but it is reasonable to propose the correction of vitamin D deficit and the use of bisphosphonates aimed to lower PTH levels and bone resorption before parathyroidectomy.
A journal is a periodical publication intended to further progress of science, usually by reporting new research. Most journals are highly specialized, although some of the oldest journals publish articles, reviews, editorials, short communications, letters, and scientific papers across a wide range of scientific fields. Journals contain articles that peer reviewed, in an attempt to ensure that articles meet the journal's standards of quality, and scientific validity. Each such journal article becomes part of the permanent scientific record.
Last date updated on January, 2021