The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, in vertebrate anatomy, is one of the largest endocrine glands and consists of two connected lobes. The thyroid gland is found in the neck, below the thyroid cartilage. The thyroid gland controls how quickly the body uses energy, makes proteins, and controls how sensitive the body is to other hormones
The clinical importance of thyroid nodules is primarily the need to exclude thyroid malignancy, which accounts for 4 to 6.5 percent of all thyroid nodules. Although several imaging modalities are available, fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is the current gold standard for the diagnosis of patients presenting with thyroid nodules. Unlike for papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular thyroid carcinoma is being differentiated less frequently with FNAB from microfollicular or cellular adenomas. These specimens which accounts for 20 percent of all thyroid biopsies are usually categorized as follicular neoplasm. Most physicians recommend surgery in these patients and final diagnosis of follicular cancer is made on the basis of capsular or vascular invasion evidences after surgical excision of thyroid nodule.
Many studies were performed to develop clinical (gender, nodule size, character of the gland by palpation) or paraclinical (PET scans, RT-PCR measurement of thyroglobulin mRNA, cellular and molecular markers) criteria that improve upon cytology to predict malignancy in follicular neoplasm.
Thyroid cancer, the most common endocrine malignancy usually presents as a solitary nodule. FNAB is the best way for the diagnosis of cancer in patients presenting with thyroid nodules. FNA cytology reports are classified as: Benign, Follicular lesion of undetermined significance and Follicular neoplasm, Suspicious for malignancy, Malignant and Nondiagnostic.
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel âroadsâ towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is âself-archivingâ (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.
Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.
Last date updated on June, 2014