The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, in vertebrate anatomy, is one of the largest endocrine glands and consists of two connected lobes. The thyroid gland is found in the neck, below the thyroid cartilage. The thyroid gland controls how quickly the body uses energy, makes proteins, and controls how sensitive the body is to other hormones.
Surgery remains the mainstay for treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Total or near-total thyroidectomy followed by radioiodine (I-131) ablation of residual thyroid tissue is the recommended treatment for high-risk disease, including those patients with macroscopic tumor invasion and distant metastases. However, total or near-total thyroidectomy is not always possible, especially in patients with extensive or locally invasive tumor. As an alternative, large remnant ablation may be considered. There is little evidence regarding the use of I-131 to ablate the remaining thyroid lobe in locally invasive disease. The incidence of thyroid carcinoma continues to increase. It is estimated that 60,220 new cases of thyroid carcinoma will be diagnosed in 2013. Papillary thyroid carcinoma accounts for approximately 85% of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. While papillary thyroid carcinoma is generally indolent, metastatic thyroid carcinoma presents a difficult situation, especially when total or near-total thyroidectomy is not possible. Typically, I-131 ablation is employed as adjunct therapy, following surgery because normal thyroid tissue has higher iodine avidity when compared to tumor.
The recommended treatment for high-risk differentiated thyroid carcinoma is total or near-total thyroidectomy followed by radioiodine ablation. However, if total or near-total thyroidectomy is not possible, large remnant ablation is a feasible option.
Last date updated on June, 2014