The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, in vertebrate anatomy, is one of the largest endocrine glands and consists of two connected lobes. The thyroid gland is found in the neck, below the thyroid cartilage. The thyroid gland controls how quickly the body uses energy, makes proteins, and controls how sensitive the body is to other hormones.
Downâs syndrome is the most frequent genetic cause of mental retardation in men with an incidence of 1 in 750 live births. Consequently physicians frequently encounter patients with Downâs syndrome in their clinical practice and have to handle their medical problems. Autoimmune phenomenon like hypothyroidism, Celiac disease and type 1 diabetes mellitus are encountered more frequently in Downâs syndrome than in the general population.
Hyperthyroidism though rare is more prevalent in patients with Downâs syndrome than in the general population and has no gender predominance as shown in a study in Spain by Goday-Arno A et al..
Despite advances in treatment, infections especially pneumonia and leukaemia are major cause of morbidity and mortality in Downâs syndrome.
Last date updated on June, 2014