The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, in vertebrate anatomy, is one of the largest endocrine glands and consists of two connected lobes. The thyroid gland is found in the neck, below the thyroid cartilage. The thyroid gland controls how quickly the body uses energy, makes proteins, and controls how sensitive the body is to other hormones.
Papillary Thyroid Cancer (PTC) is often multifocal and commonly metastasizes to regional lymph nodes (in 40% of cases). Sites of distant metastases from PTC are the lung (49%), bone (25%), lung and bone (15%), and central nervous system (12%). Other unusual sites of distant metastasis being the liver, kidneys, and adrenal glands. Rarely initial presentation with only muscle metastase or skin metastases is possible. The presence of dermal metastases portends a poor prognosis, because visceral metastatic disease is almost invariably present. The presence of new dermal lesions in a patient with a history of thyroid cancer should lead to a full examination of the skin for cutaneous nodules that may prove to be metastases. The possible association of dermal, lung and muscle metastases should be borne in mind, and the finding of one should lead to a search for the other. Although treatments may not provide much benefit, understanding the clinical manifestations determines the overall management of the patient.
Last date updated on August, 2021