Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells that have self-renewal capacity and differentiation potency into several specialized cell types at least in mesoderm origin. The MSCs were first isolated from rodent bone marrow by Friedenstein and their colleagues in 1976. They observed that the isolated cells could adhere to plastic culture dishes and had feature as spindle-shape cells like fibroblast. Moreover, the adherent cells demonstrated as clonogenic feature or clonal density form which was defined as colony-forming unit fibroblasts (CFU-F) characteristic. Over the past years, subsequent studies found that these cells could differentiate into mesodermallineage cells such as osteoblast, adipocytes and chondrocytes in vitro. Although there are several terms for defining these cells such as marrow stromal cells, multipotent stromal cells, bone marrow stromal stem cells and multi-potent adult progenitor cells, mesenchymal stem cells are widely mentioned by several studies based on their differentiation potential toward mesodermal tissues or all connective tissues such as adipose, bone and cartilage.
Currently, MSCs have been known as promising tool for therapeutic purpose in clinic based on their several advantages including selfrenewal, extensive in vitro expansion, immunomodulation property, engraftment capacity, multi-lineages differentiation potential including few ethical concerns as compared to embryonic stem cells. Moreover, increasing evidences have been shown that MSCs can be isolated from various cell types including adipose tissue, dental pulp, peripheral blood, placenta and umbilical cord.
Wilairat Leeanansaksiri, Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Current Clinical Applications and Therapeutic Potential in Liver Diseases
Last date updated on July, 2014