|A branch of geometry describing the properties of a figure that are unaffected by continuous distortion, such as stretching or knotting. Topology includes, General topology that establishes the foundational aspects of topology and investigates properties of topological spaces and investigates concepts inherent to topological spaces. Algebraic topology tries to measure degrees of connectivity using algebraic constructs such as homology and homotopy groups. Differential topology is that which deals with differentiable functions on differentiable manifolds Geometric topology it mainly deals manifolds and their embeddings (placements) in other manifolds. A particularly active area is low dimensional topology, which studies manifolds of four or fewer dimensions.
Scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further progress of science, usually by reporting novel research. There are thousands of scientific journals in publication, and many more have been published at various points in the past. Most journals are highly specialized, although some of the oldest journals publish articles and scientific papers across a wide range of scientific fields. Scientific journals contain articles that are peer reviewed, to ensure that articles meet the journal's standards of quality, and scientific validity. The publication of the results of research is an essential part of the scientific method. If they are describing experiments or calculations, they must supply enough details that an independent researcher could repeat the experiment or calculation to verify the results. Each such journal article becomes part of the permanent scientific record.
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