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Aging is the result of biological changes that occur in multiple organ systems. The rate of aging is determined by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Chronic disease contributes to the aging process by hastening the rate and accumulation of damaging cellular alterations. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a multi-factorial chronic disease that begins in childhood and progresses with age. In combination with the extensive literature on dieting (i.e. caloric restriction) in humans, suggest that in nonhuman and human primates, moderate calorie restriction evokes very similar metabolic, hormonal and physiological changes that, in calorie restricted rodents have increased longevity as long as they are not exposed to pathogens. However, because of experimental limitations, studying the beneficial effects on aging and longevity in humans is difficult. Most recently, the Comprehensive Assessment of the Longterm Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy (CALERIE) research program has been designed to systematically investigate sustained calorie restriction in humans on markers of aging and cardiovascular disease.All healthful dietary patterns are nutrient dense and incorporate high quality carbohydrates, mainly from vegetables, fruits and legumes. The nutrients and bioactives including phytonutrients in these diets may benefit CVD risk status. To evaluate the contribution of these food components in the diet for reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors Jenkins et al. conducted a controlled feeding trial using a diet similar in nutrient content to the Okiniawan diet and referred to it as the âPortfolio Dietâ. The Portfolio Diet is a vegetarian diet designed to achieve maximal LDL-C lowering effects. These findings demonstrated that a heart healthy diet that included a combination of dietary strategies (i.e. increased fiber, flavonoids, stanols, and vegetable protein) had additive effects on major CVD lipid/lipoprotein risk factors. This food first approach proved to be as efficacious as a first generation statin drug.(Fleming JA, Holligan S, Kris-Etherton PM, Dietary Patterns that Decrease Cardiovascular Disease and Increase Longevity)