|Scholarly peer review is the process of subjecting an author's scholarly work, research, or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field, before a paper describing this work is published in a journal. The work may be accepted, considered acceptable with revisions, or rejected. Peer review requires a community of experts in a given (narrowly defined) field, who are qualified and able to perform reasonably impartial review. Transplantation is the transfer of essential cells, organs or tissues from one location to another with in a same person or from one individual to the other for the purpose of replacing damaged or absent organs in patients. Many of the diseases which will not be readily curable by different types of treatments can be cured by this technique of transplantation. Transplantation technique can be mainly divided into two types called allograft and autograft transplantations. Autograft transplantation is a transplantation which is performed by transferring organs or tissues from one place to other within the same body, whereas allograft transplantation is a transplantation technique which is performed between two different individuals or between two species. There are different types of transplantations where different kinds of organs will act as transplants such as heart, kidney, liver, lung, pancreas, intestine, thymus, bones, cornea, skin, heart valves, nerves and veins. Most commonly transplanted organs are kidneys which are followed by liver and heart. The top open access journals are peer reviewed scholarly journals of transplantation.