One of the branches of urology, endourology, deals with the closed manipulation of the urinary tract. Endourology has recently grown to include all minimally invasive surgical procedures related to urology. Unlike open surgery, endourology is performed with the help of small cameras and operating instruments. The surgery is performed by inserting these into the urinary tract. The cornerstone of endourology is transurethral surgery. The urinary tract can be reached via the urethra which helps in performing prostate surgery, surgery of urothelium tumours, surgery related to stone and other simple urethral and ureteral procedures. Laproscopy and robotics are the recent additions which has further subdivided the urology branch.
The impact factor of journal provides quantitative assessment tool for grading, evaluating, sorting and comparing journals of similar kind. It reflects the average number of citations to recent articles published in science and social science journals in a particular year or period, and is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. It is first devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information. The impact factor of a journal is evaluated by dividing the number of current year citations to the source items published in that journal during the previous two years.
Last date updated on September, 2020