One of the branches of urology, endourology, deals with the closed manipulation of the urinary tract. Endourology has recently grown to include all minimally invasive surgical procedures related to urology. Unlike open surgery, endourology is performed with the help of small cameras and operating instruments. The surgery is performed by inserting these into the urinary tract. The cornerstone of endourology is transurethral surgery. The urinary tract can be reached via the urethra which helps in performing prostate surgery, surgery of urothelium tumours, surgery related to stone and other simple urethral and ureteral procedures. Laproscopy and robotics are the recent additions which has further subdivided the urology branch.
Peer review refers to the work done during the screening of submitted manuscripts and funding applications. This process encourages authors to meet the accepted standards of their discipline and reduces the dissemination of irrelevant findings, unwarranted claims, unacceptable interpretations, and personal views. Publications that have not undergone peer review are likely to be regarded with suspicion by academic scholars and professionals.
Last date updated on July, 2014