|One of the branches of urology, endourology, deals with the closed manipulation of the urinary tract. Endourology has recently grown to include all minimally invasive surgical procedures related to urology. Unlike open surgery, endourology is performed with the help of small cameras and operating instruments. The surgery is performed by inserting these into the urinary tract. The cornerstone of endourology is transurethral surgery. The urinary tract can be reached via the urethra which helps in performing prostate surgery, surgery of urothelium tumours, surgery related to stone and other simple urethral and ureteral procedures. Laproscopy and robotics are the recent additions which has further subdivided the urology branch.
Scholarly peer review is the process of subjecting an author's scholarly work, research, or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field, before a paper describing this work is published in a journal. The work may be accepted, considered acceptable with revisions, or rejected. Peer review requires a community of experts in a given (narrowly defined) field, who are qualified and able to perform reasonably impartial review.