Laparoscopy is a surgical procedure performed in the pelvis or the abdomen via small incisions which can range from 0.5 cm to 1.5 cm. A camera is inserted to get a view of the area to be operated. This procedure can be used to not only inspect but also diagnose a condition or to perform a surgery. A laproscope can be of two types- telescopic rod lens system and digital laproscope. The telescopic rod lens system is usually connected to a single or three chip video camera. The digital laparoscope involves miniature digital video camera placed at the end of the laparoscope. It allows the doctors to perform both minor and complex surgeries with minimum cuts in the abdomen. This procedure is advantageous to the patient in a number of ways when compared to the open procedure as it reduces pain owing to smaller incisions and shorter recovery time.
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel roads towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is self-archiving (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.
Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.
Last date updated on July, 2014