Pediatric urology is a surgical sub-branch of medicine that deals with the disorders of genitourinary systems of children. Pediatric urologists take care of medication and consultation for both boys and girls (birth to early adult age). Disorders of urination, reproductive organs and testes are one of the most common problems. Some of the most common dealt problems include bladder control problems like daytime urinary incontinence and bedwetting; Cryptorchidism (Undescended testes); hypospadias; Epispadias: Bladder and kidney stones (Urolithiasis); minor malformations of the penis; Phimosis; obstruction of urine; vesicoureteral reflux; Neurogenic bladder (e.g., associated with spina bifida); Antenatal hydronephrosis; Tumors and cancers of the kidneys;Repair of genitourinary trauma; Genitourinary malformations and birth defects; prune belly syndrome; Cloacal exstrophy; bladder exstrophy; Ambiguous genitalia and intersex conditions.
High-impact journals are those considered to be highly influential in their respective fields. The impact factor of journal provides quantitative assessment tool for grading, evaluating, sorting and comparing journals of similar kind. It reflects the average number of citations to recent articles published in science and social science journals in a particular year or period, and is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. It is first devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information. The impact factor of a journal is evaluated by dividing the number of current year citations to the source items published in that journal during the previous two years.
Last date updated on August, 2020