|Pediatric urology is a surgical sub-branch of medicine that deals with the disorders of genitourinary systems of children. Pediatric urologists take care of medication and consultation for both boys and girls (birth to early adult age). Disorders of urination, reproductive organs and testes are one of the most common problems. Some of the most common dealt problems include bladder control problems like daytime urinary incontinence and bedwetting; Cryptorchidism (Undescended testes); hypospadias; Epispadias: Bladder and kidney stones (Urolithiasis); minor malformations of the penis; Phimosis; obstruction of urine; vesicoureteral reflux; Neurogenic bladder (e.g., associated with spina bifida); Antenatal hydronephrosis; Tumors and cancers of the kidneys;Repair of genitourinary trauma; Genitourinary malformations and birth defects; prune belly syndrome; Cloacal exstrophy; bladder exstrophy; Ambiguous genitalia and intersex conditions.
Scholarly journal is a peer-reviewed journal in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published. Scholarly journals serve as forums for the introduction and presentation for scrutiny of new research, and the critique of existing research. Content typically takes the form of articles presenting original research, review articles, and book reviews. The term Scholarly journal applies to scholarly publications in all fields; this article discusses the aspects common to all academic field journals.