|Pediatric urology is a surgical sub-branch of medicine that deals with the disorders of genitourinary systems of children. Pediatric urologists take care of medication and consultation for both boys and girls (birth to early adult age). Disorders of urination, reproductive organs and testes are one of the most common problems. Some of the most common dealt problems include bladder control problems like daytime urinary incontinence and bedwetting; Cryptorchidism (Undescended testes); hypospadias; Epispadias: Bladder and kidney stones (Urolithiasis); minor malformations of the penis; Phimosis; obstruction of urine; vesicoureteral reflux; Neurogenic bladder (e.g., associated with spina bifida); Antenatal hydronephrosis; Tumors and cancers of the kidneys;Repair of genitourinary trauma; Genitourinary malformations and birth defects; prune belly syndrome; Cloacal exstrophy; bladder exstrophy; Ambiguous genitalia and intersex conditions.
Scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further progress of science, usually by reporting novel research. There are thousands of scientific journals in publication, and many more have been published at various points in the past. Most journals are highly specialized, although some of the oldest journals publish articles and scientific papers across a wide range of scientific fields. Scientific journals contain articles that are peer reviewed, to ensure that articles meet the journal's standards of quality, and scientific validity. The publication of the results of research is an essential part of the scientific method. If they are describing experiments or calculations, they must supply enough details that an independent researcher could repeat the experiment or calculation to verify the results. Each such journal article becomes part of the permanent scientific record.