The renal arteries normally arise off the side of abdominal aorta which is situated immediately below the superior mesenteric artery and supply blood to the kidneys. Each renal artery is directed across the crus of the diaphragm almost forming a right angle with the aorta. A large portion of the blood flow to the kidneys is provided by the renal arteries. The renal arteries can pass through a third of the total cardiac output to be filtered by the kidneys. The kidneys have a variable arterial and there can be one or more renal arteries supplying each kidney. They are located above the renal vein. A common renovascular anamoly is teo or more arteries to a single kidney (Supernumerary renal arteries) with an occurrence ranging from 25% to 40% of kidneys. A renal artery has a radius of 0.25 cm (approximately) and 0.26 at the root.
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel roads towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is self-archiving (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.
Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.
Last date updated on July, 2014