Testicular cancer is a form of cancer which develops in the testicles. There may be numerous lumps on the testicles, but, not all of them are malignant or cancerous. Other conditions may include testicular microlithiasis, appendix testis and epididymal cysts. They may be painful but they are not cancerous. This cancer has the highest rates of cure with an average rate of survuival of 95%. If the tumor has not spread to the other parts of the body the survival rate increases to approximately 99%. If in a few cases the cancer has spread to the nearby areas, the condition can be cured by chemotherapy. This offers a cure rate of 80%. The United States diagnose between 7,500 and 8,000 testicular cancer each year. UK diagnoses approximately 2,000 men a year. Over his lifetime, the chances of a man at risk of testicular cancer are roughly 1 in 200. Being the most common form of cancer in males of age group 2039 years which is the period of peak incidence it is rarely seen before puberty.
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel roads towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is self-archiving (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.
Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.
Last date updated on January, 2021