Acute infectious thyroiditis is a rare condition, causing less than 0.1% of all thyroid disease . The most common cause of acute suppurative thyroid infection is bacterial, but other causes also include fungal, mycobacterial and parasitic invasion. The thyroid is thought to be protected from such infection by its own inherent properties, including its encapsulation, high vascularity and lymphatic drainage, its content of iodine and generation of hydrogen peroxide. It is more common in those with coexistent thyroid disease or abnormalities, as well as immunosuppressed patients including patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection and those with congenital anatomical abnormalities, such as piriform sinus fistula .Prompt diagnosis is required for optimal management, with imaging, aspiration and Gram-staining, followed by institution of appropriate antibiotics, with surgical drainage of any abscesses. Outcome is variable, and hinges on early recognition to reduce the risk of fulminant, life-threatening disease and complications.
Campylobacter jejuni as a Cause of Acute Infectious Thyroiditis, on a Background of SLE-related End Stage Renal Failure and CMV Viraemia: A Case Report and Review of the Literature: Diggins B, Diaz-Cano SJ and Schulte KM
Last date updated on July, 2014