|Acute otitis media is one of the most commonly diagnosed childhood infections, and this is true not only in the USA where it accounts for more than 20 million visits to pediatricians every year. The disease is most prevalent in children younger than 2 years of age. The etiology of AOM varies with age, the most frequently implicated agents being viruses such as rhinoviruses, influenza viruses, or respiratory syncytial viruses and bacteria, such as non-encapsulated Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenza have been consistently reported to be the two major bacterial pathogens responsible for AOM, mainly by studies in the USA and European countries. Three pneumococcal conjugate vaccines are currently licensed for use in children and they have showed modest efficacy against AOM overall. Randomized clinical trials with a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the USA and Finland showed reductions in the incidence of AOM of 6-9%. Another pneumococcal vaccine that has been used the outer membrane protein D carrier derived from H. influenzae as a carrier showed 35% efficacy against clinical AOM, with statistically significant protection against both S. pneumoniae and H. influenza-related AOM. In children, PCV-13 provides serotype coverage of 90.2% for AOM.
Bacterial Etiology and Pneumococcal Serotypes in Turkish Children with Acute Otitis Media: Mehmet Ceyhan, Yasemin Ozsurekci, Nezahat GÃ¼rler, Eda Karadag Oncel, Melda Celik, Ahmet Emre Aycan, Venhar Gurbuz, Umut Akyol, Ozan AltuntaÅ, Adnan Karabent, YÄ±ldÄ±z CamcÄ±oÄlu, Mehmet Ada, Emre Alhan and Ãzlem ÃzgÃ¼r