The development of vaccines, one of the most important medical interventions for improving the human health, dates back to the 19th century after the discovery by Koch and Pasteur that several infectious and potentially lethal diseases were caused by microorganisms. The studies on microbiological characteristics of pathogens and mechanisms of immune response established the principles for the development of the first type of vaccines through the isolation, inactivation and the following inoculations of infectious agents. Over the centuries, the spread of different diseases and the improvement in scientific research promote the development of new strategies of vaccination. Current vaccines can be divided in two groups: live attenuated and inactivated. The first group includes vaccines against pathogens as smallpox, yellow fever, rubella, mumps and measles. They consist of weakened versions of the pathogen and mimic the protective immunity induced in people who survive live infection.
Probiotics and Vaccination in Children: Michele Miraglia del Giudice, Salvatore Leonardi, Francesca Galdo, Annalisa Allegorico, Martina Filippelli, Teresa Arrigo, Carmelo Salpietro, Mario La Rosa, Chiara Valsecchi, Sara Carlotta Tagliacarne , Anna Maria Castellazzi and Gian Luigi Marseglia
Last date updated on July, 2014