Epstein–Barr Virus|OMICS International | Journal Of Vaccines And Vaccination

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Epstein–Barr Virus

Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is a human gamma herpesvirus known as the first human cancer virus isolated from Burkitt lymphoma. Most humans are asymptomatic EBV carriers with EBV antibodies in their blood. However, when they are first infected during adolescence or adulthood, they often develop infectious mononucleosis (IM) with various clinical symptoms and antibody responses to EBV-antigens. EBV is also occasionally associated with several other diseases, including a subset of Burkitt lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, gastric cancer, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD), lymphomas in patients with AIDS, and chronic active EBV infection or virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome. Therefore, preventing these EBV-associated diseases, particularly in immunosuppressed patients, through EBV vaccination would substantially benefit public health and economy. EBV uses its envelope glycoproteins (gp): gp350/220, gp25, gp42, and gp110 to adhere to and invade B lymphocytes; gp350/220 is the major envelope protein on the EBV surface. EBV infection is initiated when gp350/220 binds to the complement receptor CD21 on the B cell surface. EBV gp42 subsequently binds to a secondary receptor, HLA-DR, which leads to virus-mediated membrane fusion and virus entry into the cell. Therefore, soluble gp350/220 fragments should block EBV attachment on B cells and prevent EBV infection. Synthetic Peptides of Epstein–Barr Virus-major Envelope Glycoprotein-350/220 do not Prevent Infection in a Rabbit Epstein–Barr Virus Infection Model: Kaoru Kato, Hitoshi Sano, Keiko Nagata, Hirotsugu Sugihara, Kyosuke Kanai, Satoshi Kuwamoto1, Masako Kato1 Ichiro Murakami and Kazuhiko Hayashi 60) Haemophilus influenza. Haemophilus influenza is a pleomorphic bacillus that has been associated with localized and invasive infections, such as bronchitis, otitis, pneumonia, meningitis, septicemia, and epiglottitis. H. influenzae is also responsible for most of the meningitis in children between 2 and 5 years old. H. influenzae type b (Hib) is the most invasive type of six capsular serotypes (a-f) and is recognized as a major cause of meningitis. The NTHi is typically associated with moderate disease from the upper respiratory tract in children and pneumonia in adults with cystic fibrosis or chronicle obstructive disease. The NTHi is a predominant bacterial agent of the prevalent pediatric disease otitis media (OM), and is also responsible for multiple diseases of the upper and lower respiratory tracts of both children and adults, although a commensal of the upper respiratory tracts of healthy persons, is an important cause of acute, recurrent, and persistent infections of the human respiratory tract. Membrane Protein as Novel Targets for Vaccine Production in Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitides: Julia Nogueira Varela, Mário Sérvulo Izidoro Jr, Luciana Maria de Hollanda and Marcelo Lancellotti
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Last date updated on January, 2021