|Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the major public health concerns. About 2 billion infected individuals globally, 350 million chronic hepatitis and up to 1.2 million death annually due to HBV infection have been made the emergency of this infection inevitable. Approximately 75% of patients with chronic hepatitis live in Asia and Africa and up to 15-45% of HBV infected patients grows to cirrhosis, liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). More than 35% of Iranian populations have been exposed to HBV and more than 3% of the community estimated to be virus carriers. Since 1992, national vaccination program has been applied for neonates and recent investigations implied a substantial decline in the prevalence of HBV infection from 2.5-7.2% in 1997 to 0.45% in 2003. Two large scaled study before and after national vaccination program showed a significant decline in seropositivity rate in the age group 2-14 years (1.3% Vs. 0.8%, P<0.05). Furthermore the percentage of covered population under vaccination has been improved from 62% in 1993 to 94% in 2005. Despite acceptable reports of prevention managements, there is no efficient treatment for the high percentage of healthy carriers in the society who possess a considerable proportion of involved patients. These patients are at risk for subsequent cirrhosis and HCC and act as a substantial source for spreading the infection.
Efficacy of Double Dose Intradermal Vaccination in Chronic Hepatitis B Carriers: A Double-Blinded Randomized Clinical Trial: Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei, Farahnaz Joukar, Davood Khalili and Ali Kord Valeshabad