|Mucosal immune system represents the first line of defence against external pathogens playing a key role as barrier that protect the host from environmental injuries. The Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue, characterised by a network of tissues, immune cells and effector molecules, is the principal site of interaction between the host and the commensal bacteria of intestinal microflora. It is anatomically organized in lymphoid micro-compartments such as the Peyer patches, the mesenteric lymph nodes, tonsils and adenoids which represent the most important mucosal inductive sites where immune responses are initiated, acting independently from the systemic immune apparatus. The MALT is composed of cells from the innate and acquired immune system, including APCs (macrophages and DCs), neutrophils, NK cells, mast cells, as well as T and B cells that contribute in different ways to host defence against pathogens and initiating adaptive mucosal immune response.
Probiotics and Vaccination in Children: Michele Miraglia del Giudice, Salvatore Leonardi, Francesca Galdo, Annalisa Allegorico, Martina Filippelli, Teresa Arrigo, Carmelo Salpietro, Mario La Rosa, Chiara Valsecchi, Sara Carlotta Tagliacarne , Anna Maria Castellazzi and Gian Luigi Marseglia