Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an arthropod-borne, multi-species zoonotic viral disease of livestock whose causative agent was first isolated in the 1930s. It had been exclusively confined to the African continent, but RVF spread to the Middle East in 2000. The occurrence of the disease is usually reliant on the presence of susceptible animals, a build-up of the mosquito vector population (usually associated with heavy rains) and the presence of the virus. Vaccination has been used for the control of RVF in southern and East Africa. Two types of vaccines have been described: Formalin-inactivated RVF vaccines have been used to immunize animals, laboratory workers, veterinarians and other people at high risk of exposure to RVFV. The cost of the vaccine production, the requirement for multiple inoculations required for protective immune response limit its use just for veterinary purposes . Outbreaks of RVF in animals can be prevented by a sustained programme of animal vaccination. Both modified live attenuated vaccine (Smithburn and MP12 strains) and inactivated (M/S/258 and ZH-501) virus vaccines have been developed for veterinary use. Only one dose of the live vaccine is required to provide long-term immunity but the vaccine that is currently in use may result in spontaneous abortion if given to pregnant animals.
Nanocapsulated Rift Valley Fever Vaccine Candidates and Relative Immunological and Histopathological Reactivity in Out Bred Swiss Mice: Noha Emad El-Din Abd el-Razek, Sahar A. Shoman and Aly Fahmy Mohamed
Last date updated on June, 2014