Vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs) such as Measles, Tetanus, Tuberculosis, Poliomyelitis, Pertussis, Diphteria, Yellow fever and Hepatitis B contribute substantially to morbidity and mortality among children less than five years in developing countries. It is estimated that about 2 million deaths occur globally each year from VPDs with approximately 1.5 million occurring in children under five years of age and constituting 15% of under five deaths. In Nigeria, they account for 22% and 17% of under five mortality and morbidity respectively. The World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Childrenâsâ Fund (UNICEF), and National Programme on Immunization (NPI) guidelines stipulate that a child should receive four doses of Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV), three doses of Hepatitis B Vaccine, three doses of Diphtheria, Pertussis and Tetanus (DPT) vaccine and one dose each of Bacille Calmette â Guerin (BCG), measles and yellow fever vaccines. Routine immunization with these vaccines is a cost effective way of reducing childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The prevention of these diseases in one child also has a positive ripple effect on the population as the immunized child will not transmit the disease to another child (herd immunity).
Immunization Coverage in A Rural Community in Southwestern Nigeria: Bosede Ehelami Adebayo, Regina Eziuka Oladokun and Felix Olukayode Akinbami
Last date updated on July, 2014