Water chemistry is the science that deals with impact of water on other elements in the environment and how other elements in this environment affect the quality of water. Water chemistry plays an important role in the health, abundance and diversity of life that lives on earth. Excessive amounts of some constituents, such as nutrients, or the lack of others, such as dissolved oxygen, can result in degraded conditions and harms life. Water is called the "universal solvent" because it dissolves more substances than any other liquid. This means that wherever water goes, either through the ground or through our bodies, it takes along valuable chemicals, minerals, and nutrients. Water chemistry mainly deals with analysing composition of water, structure and bonding of water, molecular vibration of water, symmetry of water molecules, formation of hydrogen bonding in water, structure of ice, autoionization, leveling effect of water and acid-base characters, amphiprotic nature, reactivity of water towards alkali metals; alkaline earth metals; halogens; hydrides; methane; oxides; and oxygen ions and electrolysis of water.
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel âroadsâ towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is âself-archivingâ (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.
Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.
Last date updated on August, 2020