|Drug metabolism is the study of the movement of the drug. It is also known as xenobiotic metabolism which involves the biochemical change of the drug by an individual or a living organism. In the phase I of the drug metabolism, involves the addition of functional group such as âOH, âCOOH or these functional groups are unmasked if the drug is lipid soluble so that the drug can undergo Phase II reaction. This phase is also called the non-synthetic or non-conjugate reactions. Phase II is also called the synthetic phase, which involves the binding of the drug to endogenous substances which make the drug readily absorbed by kidneys or liver.
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel âroadsâ towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is âself-archivingâ (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.
Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.