Wheat (Triticum sp.) is one of the most important food crops worldwide. Di-, tetra- and hexaploid species are available, which along with the different subspecies of this genus have been used for food and feed. However,the genetic diversity of this crop has been seriously compromised, and only two main species; the durum and bread wheat, currently exist. The germplasm materials that were used in the past in Spain, have been regarded as ancient wheats, thus forming a group of neglected or underutilized crops that could be an interesting reservoir of variation for modern wheat breeding.