Large differences exist at world wide level regarding the livestock production systems and the concept and objectives of quality. We followed a scheme relating four components of production (genetics, nutrition, management and animal health) to five aspects of quality (hygienic, chemical, nutritional, organoleptic and technological), considering also the effects of the consumer choices and community rules on quality and methods of production. The techniques of genetics (selection, molecular biology, transgenesis) and the biotechnologies of reproduction will play a major role in the evolution of quality mainly for the chemical-nutritional and technological characteristics and for some organoleptic aspects. In particular, transgenesis will allow to obtain products with completely new characteristics. Nutrition will influence the safety of the products positively, but also introducing risks of residues, and again the chemical-nutritional (mainly on fat composition), technological and some organoleptic characteristics. Management and animal health will have a more pronounced effect on hygienic, technological and, partly, organoleptic quality. The principal trend in countries with high consumption will be toward safe and tasty products. In other countries, the productive intensification could lead to increased risk of residues. Auditing production processes and tracing back the origin of products, mainly meat, is foreseeable.